Succinate accumulates during ischemia forcing mitochondrial complex I to operate in reversal, while producing oxidant species during reperfusion

by José Carlos Toledo

Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is a process where blood supply (thus oxygen supply) to an organ is interrupted and then restored. While reperfusion is essential for survival, it is accompanied by a burst of mitochondrial generation of redox species and intermediates such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Such species associate with derived ischemic tissue injury, underling disorders such as heart attack and stroke [1]. Nonetheless, IR mitochondrial ROS production has been considered a nonspecific consequence of a dysfunctional interaction of mitochondrial redox


Saving the planet by eating healthier food

by Ignacio Amigo*

It is well established that as countries develop, their inhabitants change their alimentary habits from complex carbohydrates and fiber to diets with a higher proportion of fats, saturated fats and sugars, a phenomenon that has been termed “nutrition transition”. The link between these new food habits and the deterioration of health is notorious and underlies the great interest that consumers have developed in the last years over “organic” and “macrobiotic” aliments. Less obvious, but probably as important, is the association between the alimentary habits and greenhouse gases emissions. When we think about climate change, we usually picture big factories releasing


The new roles of cardiolipin in ROS-mediated signalling

Cytochrome c

by Alberto Lévano-Martinez

Cardiolipin, the signature phospholipid of mitochondria, has been extensively studied as this organelle’s main structural and regulatory lipid. It exerts influential roles in the catalytic activity of key components of the oxidative phosphorylation under physiological conditions. However, recents advances in mitochondrial physiology have uncovered roles of this phospholipid in pathophysiological situations such as apoptosis, or in Barth syndrome. Cardiolipin anchors cytochrome c to the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane, which favors the electron transfer to the terminal component of the respiratory chain (Complex IV). However, during oxidative


Development of a PDT protocol that avoids amputations in the diabetic feet

by Mauricio da Silva Baptista

Photoinduced reactions can be used to treat diseases such as cancer or microbial infections in a process called Photodynamic therapy. There are several indications of PDT in the areas of dermatology, oncology, vascular, blood supplies, ophthalmology. In addition to performing research in basic science related with PDT, CEPID Redoxoma researchers work in partnership with physicians, participating on clinical studies that aim to prove the potential of PDT in clinical medicine as can be seen in article published in 2014 [1]. There are several characteristics


Mitochondrial metabolism and central nervous system dysregulation govern an overeating but low energy conversion efficiency response to intermittent-feeding

The ideal type of diet is a long-sought goal that has not been fulfilled so far, both for preventive as well as therapeutic purposes. At the same time, caloric restriction has been well demonstrated to afford increase in lifespan in several species. Intermittent feeding has been used as a substitute for caloric restriction both by overweight or obese individuals (frequently without medical supervision) or, experimentally, as a mechanistical tool to understand the physiology of lifespan extension. These intermittently-fed animals, indeed display decreased body mass, but surprisingly overall caloric intake is similar to that of ad libitum-fed animals. Work performed by the CEPID-Redoxoma


Photochemistry in the dark governs pathways for singlet oxygen generation

Excited species such as singlet molecular oxygen [O2(1Δg)] and triplet carbonyls are a less understood subgroup of oxygen-derived oxidants in BioMedicine. Their generation has been associated to the detection of ultraweak chemiluminescence in mammalian tissues and there is emerging evidence for their roles in pathophysiological situations. However, pathways accounting for their generation in vivo have remained obscure, limiting the assessment of their biological roles. In vitro, excited species arise from photochemical processes involving direct excitation by light. However, atypical photochemical processes not involving photoexcitation have been proposed


A critical look at peer review

Grant reviews by colleagues, i.e., peer-review, is a solid foundation of the science-making process. While this appears at first sight to be an immutable dogma, several criticisms have been increasingly voiced by the scientific community, indicating that the ideal peer-review process is far from established. One of the major criticisms has been a perceived lack of objectivity and expertise. In this context, a group of investigators from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Bethesda, USA, led by Michael Lauer, performed a follow-up study of NIH RO1 grant (the equivalent of a “regular project”) impact and asked whether such impact could be predicted by the score grant level at the


ROS are not good for our minds

Ohara Augusto
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo

You may be thinking that the above title means that ROS are bad to our central nervous system because they trigger oxidative reactions that can damage it. Instead, the message here is that the term ROS obscures the mind to the point of hindering the advances in the understanding of the multiple roles of free radicals and oxidants in physiology and pathophysiology.

ROS appeared as an abbreviation for Reactive Oxygen Species but abbreviations are useful when they have specific meanings. ROS is not truly an abbreviation because it groups together molecules with entirely different chemical and biological properties. Also, it is not accepted as a standard abbreviation in chemistry because


Alicia Kowaltowski wins the Capes-Elsevier award

Alicia Kowaltowski, Full Professor at the Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, and member of the INCT and CEPID of Redox Processes in biomedicine – Redoxoma, was one of the winners of 2014 Award Capes-Elsevier. The award ceremony was held at the Copacabana Palace in Rio de Janeiro, last May.

The award is a partnership between Elsevier and the Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel, Ministry of Education (CAPES / MEC). This year, ten women scientists received the award for their contribution to the development of science in Brazil.

The criteria for the selection of the winners was researchers who have impacted the scientific community, published articles


Welcome to the Cepid Redoxoma Newsletter!

Editor’s Page

Welcome to the Cepid Redoxoma Newsletter!

Science is all about communicating Science. From a single discovery to an ellaborated theory, nothing exists unless it is effectively communicated and published. But this is not enough, particularly considering the explosive amount of information one is exposed nowadays. Discoveries and theories have to be actively and widely disseminated. Moreover, communication is the only means for cross-fertilization and collaboration, the hallmarks of high-impact modern Science. The main purpose of our CEPID-Redoxoma is to build a network that allows interaction and synergism.

Effective communication, thus, is at the heart of our aims as a group and, at the same time, is important