Editorial

Editor's Page | F. LaurindoWe are back after a longer while than we expected. ...

We are back after a longer while than we expected. As with redox processes themselves, this delay was caused by good and bad things. The bad ones were a recurrent problem with our server, which caused our Newsletter to repeatedly get out of access. Hopefully it will be stable from now on, just as we hope to happen with redox homeostasis. The good things were recurrent bouts of very very hard work for our Editor, as well as for our colleagues, as chairs and organizers of international meetings, editors, authors of original as well as review articles, assistants for our research agencies , etc in addition of course to the usual duties at our universities. Similar to redox processes, we hope

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Calorie Restriction can protect the brain

Redoxcope: Interview | M. C. WiderCalorie Restriction Can Protect the Brain

by Maria Celia Wider

For decades, caloric restriction has been known to enhance longevity and the prevent age-related diseases. However, the processes responsible for these effects are not yet fully understood. Now, Redoxoma Network researchers have found the mechanism in which caloric restriction facilitates mitochondrial calcium retention capacity in the brain, resulting in protection against excitotoxic damage, which is related to neuronal loss in diseases such as stroke, Parkinson´s and Alzheimer’s. “Because we determined caloric restriction´s mechanism of action, we may be able to develop drugs to increase mitochondrial calcium uptake in mitochondria in a manner that is not dependent

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An unexpected antiinflammatory route involving Nox2 NADPH Oxidase and thioredoxin

Redoxoma Highlights | F. LaurindoAn unexpected antiinflammatory route involving Nox2 NADPH Oxidase and thioredoxin

Nox NADPH oxidases are major sources of signaling oxidants in a variety of cell types, while in phagocytes Nox2 is essential for microbial killing and host defense. Genetic mutations impairing the Nox2 complex in humans associate with chronic granulomatous disease, a severe immunodeficiency that courses, however, with a paradoxical proinflammatory state. Recent work involving a cooperation between 2 CEPIDs, the Center for Research in Inflammatory Diseases (Fernando Q. Cunha) and Redoxoma (Lucia R Lopes) helped shedding light onto this complex phenomenon [1]. The investigators showed that during Nox2 activation, there is

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Protein disulfide isomerase regulates blood vessel caliber in vascular disease

Redoxoma Highlights | F. LaurindoPDI regulates blood vessel caliber in vascular disease

While the intuitive idea is that the lumen of diseased blood vessels narrows due to the pathological growth of a migrating cell mass, similar to rust in an old pipe, actually the lumen of diseased vessels is strongly influenced by a phenomenon called vascular remodeling, the structural reorganization of whole-vessel circumference. Typically, remodeling is the sole determinant of vessel lumen due to blood flow changes, in which redox signaling processes play an important mediator role in association with NO biovailability. However, redox processes appear to mediate other forms of vascular remodeling as well, such as those associated with atherosclerosis-related processes. We showed previously

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Is redox metabolism connected with Circadian Rhythm?

Highlights | Carolina G. FernandesIs redox metabolism connected with Circadian Rhythm?

by Carolina Gonçalves Fernandes

Circadian Rhythm is any biological process that temporally organizes behavioral, physiological, and molecular events around the 24h day-night cycle. This process has evolved over approximately 2.5 billion years ago at the Great Oxidation Event. The later involved increases in atmospheric oxygen levels that simulatenwously enabled organisms to resonate with their environment such that their internal cycles anticipate and match external rhythms on Earth. In mammals, this rhythmicity is controlled by the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) receiving retina signals and “translating” them into each tissue/organ that commonly responds using the transcription/translation

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The Mismeasure of Science

The Radical-Free Corner | Gregory A. PetskoThe Mismeasure of Science

by Gregory A. Petsko

This article is reproduced from the IUBMB News, issue 1 (February 2016), with kind permissions of the author and IUBMB (Dr. Michael P. Walsh, Secretary General). Dr. Petsko is Adjunct Professor at Cornell University, a member of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA and a former president of the American Society for Biochemistry and Cell Biology (among many other positions). His research provided major contributions for understanding structure-function relations of proteins, including many related to neurodegenerative diseases (Ed. Note)

High on my list of things that need changing in the culture of science today – and it’s a list that gets longer by the

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The importance of a good laboratory Notebook

Thomas Edison

Contributed by Paolo Di Mascio

A good scientist knows the importance of keeping all experimental records very well organized. Keeping a good laboratory notebook (LNB) is essential at the time of writing papers and reports, but can also save your time when repetitions are necessary some time later. In fact, this is a practice adopted in various industries where, by legislation, the laboratory procedure must be well documented.

LNBs are, also, important as legal documents to prove patents and defend your data against accusations of fraud. LNB is a Scientific Legacy in the laboratory of your Institution.

Currently, you can also keep an electronic LNB, but in those

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Editorial

Duality. That is the word of order of this issue of our Newsletter. Dual roles of enzymes as anti or prooxidants, dual roles of autophagy to protect or kill cancer cells, dual roles of redox processes to signal physiological processes or to contribute to disease-promoting mechanisms, and so on. Duality is not surprising, as we see that all along nature. But it is confusing to the scientist, who for sure would love to classify processes as either beneficial or damaging, given the pattern-seeking way our minds are structured. Things become even more confusing in the redox biology/chemistry area, given the several extra levels at which a given process can bifurcate across the “light-or-dark”

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What is in a mechanism?

Francisco R. M. Laurindo
Vascular Biology Laboratory, Incor
University of São Paulo Medical School

If you care about science, you care about mechanisms. Or at least you should, if you care about doing good science. More than ever, there is a wide consensus that the quality of science is as good as the depth of mechanistic insights it carries. Powerful mechanisms appear everywhere: in articles from top journals, in discussions with good scientists, in decisions about grant priorities, academic career, etc. This is also uncomfortably felt in the rejection letters one gets nowadays, in which the lack of sufficient mechanistic insights is a chief reason for not achieving a high-impact publication

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Mitochondria and lysosomes: lords of life and death in cells?

by Mauricio da Silva Baptista

An important aim of our CEPID-Redoxoma is to develop diagnostic and therapeutic applications of redox processes. In this context, antioxidant therapies are at the frontline of our interests as a group. In parallel, however, a smaller but nonetheless significant group of strategies aim to explore prooxidant and stress-enhancing effects of distinct interventions, mainly to achieve selective toxicity towards damaged or tumor cells. The group of Prof. Mauricio S. Baptisata, from our CEPID-Redoxoma, has been exploring for more than a decade photo-induced compounds as a means to achieve such type of effects. Interestingly, this group recently provided a significant contribution

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